Health Issues IN Bostons
Boston Terrier First Aid Kit
incase they get stung by a bee, spider, wasp, or just having a real problem breathing
I use the children’s liquid form. Follow directions for small child or ask you vet. Having this handy may save his life. This will keep him going until you get to the vets.
Eye Wash Any people eye wash will work. Bostons having the large open eye often have eye problems. Any people eye wash will work.
Bostons having the large open eye often have eye problems.
Should you see a eye problem wash with scalene solution and carefully look for a scratch or something in the eye. Please seek the advice of your vet for scratches. He may want you to administer a eye ointment to prevent ulcer from forming.
Nose drops Antihistamine may be also helpful in case of breathing problems in place of or with the BenadrylAntihistamine may be also
helpful in case of breathing problems in place of or with the Benadryl
Skin Problems I have fond that shampoo with tree tea oil works very well on most skin problems and cutsI have fond that shampoo with
tree tea oil works very well on most skin problems and cuts
down on the dander.
Acidophilus- Bifidus for diarrhea you can not over dose on this. This is the same bacteria fond in yogurt. for diarrhea you can not
over dose on this. This is the same bacteria fond in yogurt.
First Part of Deafness Study
This post will attempt to define deafness in dogs as has been discussed on this list. Unless otherwise stated, all references and quotations will be from several published studies by George M. Strain, Professor of Neuroscience, School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University. Dr. Strain is deemed the leading authority on the subject of deafness in dogs and cats.
Of the eight known classifications of deafness, only three are common in dogs: inherited congenital sensorineural, acquired later-onset sensorineural, and acquired later-onset conductive. It is the inherited congenital sensorineural deafness that we have been discussing on this list.
To quote Dr. Strain: "Inherited congenital sensorineural deafness is usually, but not always, associated with pigmentation genes responsible for white in the coat." This is usually associated with pigmentation patterns-- such as our BTs' white blaze, collar, and chest-- "where increasing amounts of white in the hair coat increases the likelihood of deafness." The two pigmentation genes most often associated with deafness are the merle and the piebald. It is, specifically, the piebald gene that we are concerned with in Boston Terriers. When these piebald genes (responsible for the white) are overly expressed, the other pigment genes normally in the blood supply are repressed. Now this "tainted" blood supply to the cochlea, causes degeneration of the nerve cells, which causes irreversible deafness.
I do not think any of the experts knows why that happens...that would be the key, of course, to eliminating deafness. That should be enough to digest for one post. Any questions?
Further posts on deafness will deal with bilateral/unilateral deafness, testing, and breeding concerns and responsibilities. I will try to keep it short and give enough time to understand each phase.
BOSTON TERRIER DEAFNESS
from a BTCA Health Committee brochure
Deafness has been known in the Boston Terrier since the origins of the breed. Several of the old books make reference to dogs that
were deaf. Today, both Dr. George Strain, world authority on canine deafness, and D. Bruce Cattanach, canine geneticist at Oxford
University in England, agree that most deafness in Boston Terriers is undoubtedly caused by the gene that causes white/blue eyed deafness
in almost 60 other canine breeds. (In some cases there may be other causes of deafness such as infection.) When the embryo is in the
process of formation, pigment cells from the neural crest migrate outward and downward and form the pattern of the Boston Terrier's
markings that we are all familiar with. This pattern is called the Irish Spotting Pattern and is called by geneticists S(i). There
is another gene that is found in some Boston Terriers called the piebald gene, and it is thought by some to be responsible for the
white "over markings" found on some Boston Terriers. This gene is identified as S(p). It is thought that this gene is responsible
for half white heads and white heads, or excessively wide collars, etc. There is actually much that isn't known about these color
genes and exactly how they are expressed. There may also be little understood modifier genes at work. In any event, the amount of
white, especially on the head, appears to have a close relationship to deafness in Boston Terriers. Deafness in our breed has never
been studied, so we have to make certain assumptions about what is known in other breeds. When the pigment cells migrate outwards
from the neural crest in the embryo of the Boston Terrier, pigment will eventually cover the body of the dog almost to its stomach
and part way down its legs. Other pigment spots on the head will migrate to places on the ears and eyes. This will leave the white
blaze, muzzle, chest, and feet unpigmented. (It is also of interest that when a Boston is crossed with a long tailed breed, the resulting
puppies will usually have a spot of white at the end of the long tail that the pigment doesn't reach.) If the pigment cells fail to
reach the inner ear where there are hairs for hearing in the cochlea called "cilia", the lack of pigment cells causes the death of
these hairs about three weeks after a puppy is born. The lack of pigment which causes the death of the hairs results in deafness because
the hairs are necessary to transmit sound to the brain. If the neural crest pigment cells do not reach the eye when they migrate,
the pigment of the eye remains bright blue. Normally vision in the eyes is not affected by the blue color. Because inheritance of
deafness in Boston Terriers has never been studied, we do not know for sure why some Bostons with regular markings may turn up with
a deafness problem. Some of the explanations might be that it is a different kind of deafness that is inherited differently, or the
modifiers are of the nature that the excessive white color is not expressed. There is a great deal that we do not know about the inheritance
of deafness in the Boston Terrier In any event, what seems apparent is that most deaf Bostons (perhaps about 80 per cent) come from
that group of Boston Terriers (perhaps as many as 20 per cent of the breed) that carry excessive white or elimination of pigment related
deafness is the fact that most show/hobby breeders have been breeding for better markings for almost a hundred years. Dr. Cattanach
feels that it should be relatively easy to reduce the amount of deafness in Boston Terriers by breeding for more conservative markings.
He says "Therefore my key message is that if one wants to reduce the incidence of S locus associated deafness in a breed, then one
should apply selection with as many indicators of pigment cell number and good migration as possible. Eye color appears to be the
strongest indicator (in Dalmatians) so select against blue eyes. Size of pigment patches is another. In Bostons this should not be
a problem - at least compared to Dalmatians - and it might take a reappraisal of the Boston Terrier Standard to specify that less
white rather than more white is desirable." "And then there is the direct hearing testing by BAER. Selection for hearing, especially
in both ears, would be expected to be effective." "While I would not discount BAER, I would expect much faster progress with eye/patching
selection. Why do I think the non-technical route better? Because every breeder can assess every dog he has, every litter, every pup
born (alive or dead) by this method. He has a powerful range of measures to provide just about all the information he needs to select
for hearing. And it costs not a penny. Were every breeder's individual data made generally available to all to aid in selective breeding,
the breed could be transformed very quickly."
Only in recent years has BAER testing come into common practice in checking dogs for deafness. Dogs can be deaf in one or both ears.
Dogs deaf in one ear are just as likely to pass deafness on to their progeny as those deaf in both ears. The only way that a unilaterally
deaf dog can be identified is by BAER testing. This testing is done by attaching tiny electrodes to a dog's skin on his head and measuring
the electric impulse produced. It only needs to be done one time in the life of most dogs. BAER testing can be done as early as six
weeks, before a puppy leaves for his new home. (It shouldn't be necessary to anesthesize most Boston Terriers to do the BAER testing.)
The BTCA Health Committee would like to encourage all breeders to BAER test their dogs before breeding and to test all litters, but
it recognizes that from a practical standpoint this is an impossibility for some people who live hundreds of miles from the nearest
BAER testing center.
You can find a list of BAER testers on the Internet at: http://www.lsu.edu/deafness/baersite.htm Until we have a way to collect good
data on deafness in Boston Terriers, it is recommended by your health Committee that you voluntarily refrain from breeding your overmarked
and half white headed dogs, or dogs with excessive white on the body, or dogs with blue eyes. This could make a significant difference
in the amount and extent of deafness in our breed both now and in future years. At the same time, do not be surprised if there is
an occasional deaf puppy among those that are conservatively marked. This happens because, for some unknown reason, pigment has not
reached the cochlea of the inner ear.
>From the book: "The Joy of Breeding Your Own Show Dog", by Ann Seranne, Howell Book House Page 229-231
Subluxed Patellas or Knee
"Subluxed patellas, more commonly referred to as slipped stifles, like all inherited factors will continue to cripple a breed
as long as breeders continue to mate affected animals. However, a breeder must be able to recognize the difference between a subluxed
patella that is a congenital abnormality and those caused by a injury to the leg muscles and tendons which hold the patellas or knee
caps securely in the groves of the stifles.
In normally developed legs the bones of the femur or upper leg bone, and the tibia, lower
leg bone, are straight. The thigh muscles are aligned with the bones and run from the hip joints in a straight line, very much like
the strings of a violin, over the knee joint, attach to the patella or knee cap, then attach to the tibial crest.
The only way that
a dog with straight legs and good muscle can have a slipped stifle is from a trauma or injury in which the muscles and tissues holding
the knee caps in place are accidentally torn or weakened. Many bad stifles are caused by allowing young dogs too much freedom to jump
or play on slippery floors. Such stifles are not inherited.
To be inherited the thigh bones must bow outward. There is no way that
the taut muscles of the leg can follow the curve of a bone. Instead it pulls to the inside of the legs and the patellas are luxated
or slipped to the inside of the legs from their correct position. It is the bowed legs that are inherited and cause subluxation of
the patellas rather than the subluxed patella that is inherited.
When a dog with straight legs, the action of the muscles is free and
they pull in a straight line over the center of the knee caps, but when the legs are bowed and the dog runs, the knee caps are pulled
to the inside of the legs. In so doing, the supporting tissues around the patellas are weakened and become torn so that the patellas
are free to slip in and out any time there is the least amount of angular pull.
It is not necessary to exert an angular stress on the
dogs back legs to determine if it has a slipped stifle. Every time a judge does this to a dog in the show ring he causes more extensive
injury to the muscles and tendons and further cripples the dog. It makes no difference whether the subluxation was a direct result
of inherited genes or caused by trauma. If the upper thigh bones are straight, the knee caps are logically in correct position. If
the eyes of a judge cannot determine if the thigh bones are straight, his hands should be able to and if he hands can't, he shouldn't
be allowed in the show ring.
Dr. H. Himani Das. What is Animal Chiropractic?
Chiropractic is one of the
oldest forms of drugless, noninvasive healthcare. The philosophy of chiropractic is based upon 2 main principles:
1. The body is a
2. The nervous system is the master system of the body.
Since the nervous system is housed by the spinal column,
any deviations thereof can influence the proper nerve flow and hence functioning of the body. Such a deviation is referred to as the
"vertebral subluxation complex" (VSC), and can have devastating effects on the body. The goal and mission of the chiropractor is to
correct the VSC in order to restore nerve flow, circulation and function via spinal manipulation.
Chiropractic has been used successfully
to treat human patients and can be used in animals as well. Similar to human patients, animals have vertebral bones that subluxation,
causing interference in proper nerve flow and circulation. many animal patients could benefit from chiropractic care!
How are subluxations
Any physical, environmental and/or emotional trauma can induce subluxations. Accidents such as a slip or fall, or being hit
by a car, involve physical trauma. The actual birthing process itself, as well as aging, places undue forces on the spine. Drugs,
toxins and extreme weather conditions represent environmental influences. Finally, emotional stresses can contribute more than we
realize - it's all connected!
Which animals can benefit from chiropractic care? Any animal with a vertebral column is a potential candidate
for chiropractic care. Dogs, cats, horses, rats, guinea pigs and iguanas are among the animal chiropractic patients I have treated.
conditions that have responded to chiropractic treatment include arthritis, hip dysphasia, lameness conditions/gait problems, and
of course, back/neck conditions.
The less obvious problems, such as allergies, ear infections, urinary incontinence, seizures/epilepsy
have also benefited. Most importantly, overall well-being can only be enhanced by "tuning up" the nervous system -all animals (with
a spine) can benefit from chiropractic care!
Some exciting side-effects noted in many of the animal patients entail an improvement
in attitude, a burst of energy and stimulation in appetite.
How long will chiropractic treatment take?
After proper nerve function has
been restored, we must give the body time to heal itself. Depending on the case, animals can recover quickly, however, older animals
and more serious problems certainly take more time. In some cases chiropractic care may not completely resolve the problem and other
approaches may be necessary.
In general, recovery time will depend on:
The length of time the problem has been present. (The longer
the problem has been around and/or taken to develop, the longer the recovery time.) Age and physical condition of the patient (e.g.
older animals may be slower to heal, but improving the quality of life can still be achieved.) Damage - the amount or severity of
the damage done is an important determining factor. Cooperation of the individual patient/owner is a key factor.
Most animal patients
need to be seen initially on a weekly basis, unless acute, for an average of 4 to 6 weeks. Intervals between visits may be extended,
as the spine begins to maintain its corrections. Maintenance visits are recommended to keep the animal's spine in optimum condition.
preventative maintenance is key!
Who can give chiropractic care to animals?
A veterinarian (DVM) or human chiropractor (DC) who has
received formal training/certification through AVCA (American Veterinary Chiropractic Association) is best qualified to give chiropractic
care to animal patients.
Ch Cantrip's Code of ExcellenceCodie